When I preview a book, I often want to know where the author got the information to support the material. This is a list of the reference material I used in Preschool: At What Cost? Website information is included so you can do your own research as well.
History of Preschool
The history of preschool is relatively short, less than 100 years. Even with the advent of nursery schools in the mid-twenetith century, forerunner of preschools, until recently, people believed that children were better nurtured at home or with family members.
the encyclopedia of informal education
“Frederick Froebel and informal education”
University of Chicago Laboratory School
“History of the Nursery School”
Bank Street School
“Bank Street School of Education: About the School: History”
“My Pedagogic Creed”
School Journal 54 (January 1897), 77-80
The Early Head Start National Resource Center
“What is Early Head Start?”
First 5 California
“Power of Preschool”
California Children & Families Commission
First 5 Parent Site
California Children & Families Commission
The Real Numbers
Research appears to be mixed on the effectiveness of preschool. Most of the studies are based on “at-risk” children in government programs. There is little comparison to children who stay at home during the preschool years. One thing that seems consistent is that many of the advantages of preschool are negated by the time children reach third grade.
“Professors Find Preschool Benefits Grossly Exaggerated”
Reason Foundation, May 20, 2006
Miseducation: Preschoolers at Risk *
(1987; New York: Knopf, 1997)
Peck, Christian W.
“American Business Leaders’ Views On Publicly-funded Pre-kindergarten and the Advantages to the Economy”
Zogby International, December 2005, 3
“Massive Study Finds Pre-School and Early Child Education Initiatives Show No Benefit”
August 2007, accessed April 8, 2010
“The development and socialization of aggression during the first five years of life”
Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
Tremblay, Richard E.
“Development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood,
Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development,“
Early Brain Development Research: Implications for Early Childhood Education
Bruer, John T
The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning, * (The Freepress, 1999)
Letter to the editor, Burlington Free Press, March 8, 1998.
Minkkinen, Molly H., Marchel, Mary Ann and Riordan, Kim
“Kindergarten Readiness: The Changing Focus of Childhood”
University of Minnesota Duluth
What Experts Say
Instead of relying on numbers and studies that may be skewed, it’s important to find out what child experts say about sending children away from home during those important early years.
“The Moore Formula”
“Ruminations on the IQ and Virtue”
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, DHHS
“The NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD): Findings for Children up to Age 4 1/2 Years (05-4318)”
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child
”Young Children Develop in an Environment of Relationships”
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University
Campbell, Susan B.
“Behavior Problems in Preschool Children: Development and Family Issues”
Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 19
edited by Thomas H. Ollendick, Ronald J. Prinz (Plenum Press, 1977)
Crain, William C.,
Reclaiming Childhood, Letting Children Be Children in Our Achievement-Oriented Society *
Henry Holt & Co., 2003
“Questions Parents Ask”
Guddemmi, Marcy and Marchesseault, Crista
”The Goldilocks Dilemma: What is the ‘right time’ to start kindergarten?
Seen Magazine, Fall 2009
Politics of Preschool
If the research doesn’t prove that preschool is necessary for the social or educational development of children, why the push?
First is the teacher’s union, National Education Association, wants more jobs available for their members. More jobs becomes more members, and having more members means more dues money. Much of the NEA’s argument for early childhood education is based on having credentialed teachers.
Second are the people who would like to change the political and social climate of the nation know that training children in their way of thinking must begin early. It is a political philosophy. “Give me a child for the first seven years, and you may do what you like with him afterwards.” Author Unknown
“Education is a weapon, whose effect depends on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed.” — Joseph Stalin
“Divergent Paths: Teacher Qualification Requirements and Classroom Regulations in State Prekindergarten Programs”
Paper presented at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, Il
Devita, Carol J.and Mosher-Williams, eds.
Who Speaks for America’s Children? The Role of Child Advocates in Public Policy *
Urban Institute Press, 2001
Preschool Education in America: The Culture of the Young Child from the Colonial Era to Present *
1995 Yale University Press
“The Nation: Child Care Veto”
Time Magazine, Dec. 20, 1971
Gundewald, Ron and Rolnick, Arthur J.
“Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return”
fedgazette, March 2003
“What is High-Quality Preschool?”
National Education Association
“Early Childhood Education”
Early Childhood Education and School Readiness, policy brief, 2008
NEA on Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten, 2004
Barnett, W. S., Epstein, D. J., Friedman, A. H., Sansanelli, R. A., & Hustedt, J. T.
The state of preschool 2009: State preschool yearbook
The National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers Graduate School of Education
“Oklahoma Gets An ‘A’ In Early Childhood Education, But An ‘F’ When It Counts”
News on 6
“Cash-strapped parents pull kids from day care”
Personal Finance, MSNBC, 2008
“Cash-strapped parents pull kids from day care,” comments, 2008
Let Them Play
One of the casualties of formal preschool academics is playtime. Whether in a preschool center or at home, children are given less time to imagine and play, in favor of academic activities.
Fox, Jill Englebright, Ph. D.
“Back-to-Basics: Play in Early Childhood”
Early Childhood News
“Moving up the Grades: Relationship between Preschool Model and Later School Success”
Early Childhood Research and Practice, Vol. 4. No. 1
“The Vital Role of Play in Early Childhood Education”
Waldorf Early Childhood Association of North America
Common Core Standards Initiative
“English Language Arts Standards & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Studies”
“Hay fever, hygiene, and household size”
British Medical Journal
University of Michigan Health System
“The Hygiene Hypothesis: Are Cleanlier Lifestyles Causing More Allergies For Kids?”
ScienceDaily, 9 September 2007
What Do I Do?
If you’re not using formal academics, what should you be doing with your preschooler? Character training is a full schedule of teaching for you and your child.
“The Importance of Discipling Early”
The Center for Character Development
“Core Ethical Values”
Lubbock Christian University
* Amazon Links